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GeneWeb can manage large databases: for example, the Roglo database contains over 7 million entries, managed by more than wizards. Official website geneweb on GitHub. Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, , as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces.

Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system.

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However, in , Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android , because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October , the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console.

Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of , the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT : Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.

The latest version is Windows The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux.

Windows PE : A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance.

Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. The last version is Windows Mobile 6. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8 , the last version Windows Phone 8. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile ; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to , when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.

Windows 1.

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The shell of Windows 1. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples.

Windows 2. It features several improvements to the user memory management. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Megabyte The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of in the International System of Units.

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Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte.

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The interpretation of using base originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name. As approximates corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote bytes and mebibyte to denote bytes.

This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X Since Snow Leopard , file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte , where 1 GB is one billion bytes. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte.

In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.

Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Web application In computing, a web application or web app is a client—server computer program which the client runs in a web browser.

Common web applications include webmail , online retail sales, online auction; the general distinction between a dynamic web page of any kind and a "web application" is unclear. Web sites most to be referred to as "web applications" are those which have similar functionality to a desktop software application, or to a mobile app. HTML5 introduced explicit language support for making applications that are loaded as web pages, but can store data locally and continue to function while offline.

Single-page applications are more application-like because they reject the more typical web paradigm of moving between distinct pages with different URLs. Single-page frameworks like Sencha Touch and AngularJS might be used to speed development of such a web app for a mobile platform. There are several ways of targeting mobile devices when making a web application: Responsive web design can be used to make a web application - whether a conventional website or a single-page application viewable on small screens and work well with touchscreens.

Progressive Web Apps are web applications that load like regular web pages or websites but can offer the user functionality such as working offline, push notifications, device hardware access traditionally available only to native mobile applications. Native apps or "mobile apps" run directly on a mobile device, just as a conventional software application runs directly on a desktop computer, without a web browser. Frameworks like React Native , Flutter and FuseTools allow the development of native apps for all platforms using languages other than each standard native language. Hybrid apps embed a mobile web site inside a native app using a hybrid framework like Apache Cordova and Ionic or Appcelerator Titanium ; this allows development using web technologies while retaining certain advantages of native apps.

In earlier computing models like client—server, the processing load for the application was shared between code on the server and code installed on each client locally. In other words, an application had its own pre-compiled client program which served as its user interface and had to be separately installed on each user's personal computer. An upgrade to the server-side code of the application would also require an upgrade to the client-side code installed on each user workstation , adding to the support cost and decreasing productivity.

In addition, both the client and server components of the application were tightly bound to a particular computer architecture and operating system and porting them to others was prohibitively expensive for all but the largest applications. In contrast, web applications use web documents written in a standard format such as HTML and JavaScript , which are supported by a variety of web browsers.

Web applications can be considered as a specific variant of client—server software where the client software is downloaded to the client machine when visiting the relevant web page, using standard procedures such as HTTP. Client web software updates may happen each time. During the session, the web browser interprets and displays the pages, acts as the universal client for any web application. In the early days of the Web, each individual web page was delivered to the client as a static document, but the sequence of pages could still provide an interactive experience, as user input was returned through web form elements embedded in the page markup.

However, every significant change to the web page required a round trip back to the server to refresh the entire page.


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In , Netscape introduced a client-side scripting language called JavaScript allowing programmers to add some dynamic elements to the user interface that ran on the client side. In , Macromedia introduced Flash, a vector animation player that could be added to browsers as a plug-in to embed animations on the web pages, it allowed the use of a scripting language to program interactions on the client side with no need to communicate with the server. In , the "web application" concept was introduced in the Java language in the Servlet Specification version 2.

In , the term Ajax was coined, applications like Gmail started to make their client sides more and more interactive. In , HTML5 was finalized, which provides graphic and multimedia capabilities without the need of client side plug-ins. WebGL API paved the way for advanced 3D graphics based on JavaScript language; these have significant importance in creating platform and browser indepen. Open-source software Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years However, academics still developed software collaboratively.

In , Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar , a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early , was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey , Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code.

The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens , publisher Tim O'Reilly , Linus Torvalds , others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles. While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code.

A Microsoft executive publicly stated in that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in In , a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.

Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, so that anybody may develop the same software or understand its internal functioning. With open-source software anyone is allowed to create modifications of it, port it to new operating systems and instruction set architectures, share it with others or, in some cases, market it. Scholars Casson and Ryan have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adoption of open source — in particular, the heightened value proposition from open source in the following categories: Security Affordability Transparency Perpetuity Interoperability Flexibility Localization - in the context of local governments.

Casson and Ryan argue that "governments have an inherent responsibility and fiduciary duty to taxpayers" which includes the careful analysis of these factors when deciding to purchase proprietary software or implement an open-source option; the Open Source Definition presents an open-source philosophy and further defines the terms of use and redistribution of open-source software.

Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License , which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January announcement of a source code release for Navigator.

Raymond , they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.